1. James G. Williams, The Bible, Violence, and the Sacred. Williams has helpful overviews of the prophet Jeremiah on pp. 144-145, 154-156. The first portion is in a section that looks at all the calls of the major prophets. Jeremiah's call in this lection is "a paradigm of the prophet as exception, as isolated, as one who lives in loneliness apart from the community." (p. 144)
1 Corinthians 13:1-13
1. "jealous" in verse 4; Greek: zeloo. Lexicon: (1) as commendably striving for someth. desire, show zeal (for), set one's heart on (1C 12.31); (2) of a strong personal concern for someone be zealous or jealous (over) (2C 11.2); (3) of an attitude of misplaced zeal be zealous for, eagerly seek, try to win over (GA 4.17); (4) in a bad sense, of hostile emotion based on resentment (be moved with) envy, be filled with jealousy, be jealous of (AC 17.5).
I think it's interesting that this word can both mean zealous and jealous. In fact, it is translated as "strive" (NRSV) in the two verses on either side of this pericope! 1 Cor 12:31: "But strive ("be zealous") for the greater gifts. And I will show you a still more excellent way." 1 Cor 14:1: "Pursue love and strive for the spiritual gifts, and especially that you may prophesy."
2. "resentful" in verse 5; Greek: ou logizetai to kakon, which more literally means "thinks no evil," which is how it was rendered in the KJV.
1. Robert Hamerton-Kelly, Sacred Violence, ch. 7, "Sacred Violence and the Reformation of Desire: Eros and Agape." This chapter begins with a quotation of 1 Cor 13:13 and develops the possibility of reforming our desire through God's agape. The second part of this chapter, on "The Church as a Structure of Agape Based on the Imitation of Christ Crucified," is one I've shared previously, one that also pertains very much to this section of 1 Corinthians since the context of chapter 13 is about the church, the Body of Christ. Link here to the first part of chapter 7 in Sacred Violence, primarily the section titled "Eros and Agape: A Different Angle on the Same Triangle." His argument in a nutshell is:
Eros is triangular -- lover, model/obstacle, beloved -- and agape is triangular -- lover, creator/God, beloved. In the latter triangle the different angle is the divine nonacquisitive desire instead of human acquisitiveness. The creator God in the place of the model/obstacle gives to the mimesis of desire its proper form as the constituting power of the self. Eros is desire structured by lack and the pursuit of death; agape is desire flowing from the divine plenitude that fulfils our lack. They are both triangular, but there is one angle that is different, and that distinguishes the nature of each. (p. 166)2. Robert Hamerton-Kelly, sermon from February 1, 2004 (Woodside Village Church).
3. James Alison, On Being Liked, ch. 9, "the strangeness of this passivity . . ." The passivity which Alison explores in this chapter is the wonder of being known by God. He quotes St. Paul in three places to set up this theme: Gal. 4:8-9, 1 Cor. 8:1-3, and 1 Cor. 13:11-13. The crucial phrase for this theme in 1 Cor. 13 is: "Now I know in part; then I shall know even as I am known." After quoting 1 Cor. 13:11-13, Alison comments:
In other words, St Paul simply takes it for granted that “being known” is what underlies all our knowing, and that we do not yet know properly because our “being known” is still to some extent veiled from us in a world run by rivalry and death. And this “being known” is in fact the reception of a loving regard towards which we, like so many heliotropes, find ourselves empowered to stretch in faith and hope. No wonder love is the greatest of these three, because it is the coming towards us of what really and inalterably is, the regard which creates, while faith and hope are the given response from within us to what is; the given response which love calls forth, while we are “on the way.” Faith and hope are a relaxing into our being uncovered, discovered, as someone loved. But they are relaxing into love’s discovery of us. (p. 133)It is a wonderful chapter about the healing powers of relaxing into God's love. Let me give you just a bit more:
The point of this is that St Paul is not making some arcane or mystical point in talking about the essential Christian discovery as being one of being known by God. On the contrary, he is showing some of the first fruits of the extraordinary anthropological discovery about who we really are which came into our ken in the wake of Jesus’ resurrection. If the true Other who is prior to all of us is absolutely not on the same level as all the rivalries, fears, acts of possession, and creations of identity over against each other, then the emergence of that other destabilizes what we took to be our self by making available to us a capacity to relax into being called into being without having to forge a being over against the other....4. Raymund Schwager, Jesus in the Drama of Salvation, p. 186.
In other words, the Other who is prior to us is not in rivalry with us, and we don’t need to possess who we are as though we would lose it if we didn’t grab it. There is not a scarcity of being or of regard from the other, against which we need to protect ourselves. And so we find ourselves being discovered and known in just the same sense as a really first rate impresario spots a talented future actor or singer long before the actor or singer knows that they are really talented, have what it takes. And it is in the impresario believing in them that they are able to be discovered. They were “known” before they knew it. And if we were to be such an actor or singer saying “I was discovered” we wouldn’t merely mean that someone with the right connections had simply lighted upon our talent which was already there. We would mean that their act of knowing, of discovering was actually creative of something into being. Our talent would be in some kind a symptom of their discovery of us. (pp. 136-137)
Reflections and Questions
1. The words "jealous" and "resentment" catch the eye of a Girardian, as they point to experiences of mimetic entanglement. The exegetical notes caution against a one-to-one correspondence between the Greek words and our modern experience of "jealous" and "resentment." But they are still instructive. zeloo perhaps is more like mimetic desire itself in having the potential to fall in either a positive or negative direction. In this context, Paul is using it to mark out the negative, jealousy, and countering it with the supreme form of non-rivalrous desire, agape. I'm not aware of any one Greek word that would correspond with "resentment," but Paul's phrase of "thinking evil" perhaps comes close. Resentment is a state which has one always pondering evil against one's rivals.
In any case, Hamerton-Kelly's reflections on reforming desire are right on for this text. God's agape through Jesus Christ brings the possibility of reforming our desire away from jealousy and resentment to love.
2. Link to a sermon reflecting on agape love entitled "My Love Can Be Jesus' Love."
1. See last
week's notes from Gil Bailie's taped lectures on the Gospel
of Luke (tape 3).
2. Robert Hamerton-Kelly, sermon
from January 24, 2010 (Society of St. John at St. Mark's Chapel,
3. Brian McLaren, Everything
Must Change, a section titled "Not a Tame Prophet":
By evoking the memory of two Gentiles being blessed, Jesus in a sense explodes the expectations he had just raised. Yes, he claims to be the long-awaited liberator, overturning the imperial narratives of the Romans and their collaborators by freeing the oppressed — but no, he will not do so in the exclusive, parochial, or nationalistic mode demanded by their counternarratives. His scope of liberation will be, as with the prophets of old, far broader than simply the members of his own religion and nation. Even outsiders, even Gentiles will be included in the scope of Jesus’ good news.
Yes, he claims the title of prophet, but he will not perform like a tame prophet who works safely within established conventions. If you want him, you’ll have to accept more than you bargained for. He comes with his own narrative, and it won’t be negotiated or compromised. The people who had been praising him a moment earlier now turn ugly:
All the people in the synagogue were furious when they heard this. They got up, drove him out of the town, and took him to the brow of the hill on which the town was built, in order to throw him off the cliff. But he walked right through the crowd and went on his way. (vv. 28-30)This is not the smooth launch of a typical campaign to be voted in as the next messiah. It’s more like Jesus is jamming his foot on the accelerator of expectations and then slamming on the brakes. It’s not a smooth ride, but a driver like this definitely gets your attention.
4. Tom Truby, a member of Theology & Peace, used Girardian insights to offer a sermon in 2013, titled "What Made Them So Mad."
Reflections and Questions
1. 4:30: "But he passed through the midst of them and went on his way." Jesus slips away at the end, the only difference in pre-figuring the last week of his life, when the crowd once again is fickle, changing from the cheers of Palm Sunday to the cheers of Good Friday. But, here at the end of Jesus' career, the crowd is successful in its attempts to do away with him.
It might be useful to ask why he slips away here. We often say something glib like, "It wasn't yet his time." But why not? What's the difference between getting to the point right away and waiting for a few more years? For me it has to do with the matter of creating witnesses, disciples. This was a feature that Gandhi was very deliberate about. He always tried to bring the media in as somewhat 'outside' observers, witnesses. Two thousand years of the Paraclete working no doubt had something to do with media people witnessing his protests in ways that were helpful to Gandhi; otherwise, they never would have been able to see the violence for what it was. For Jesus, it would take several years of preparing witnesses and then the Resurrection, in order for them to begin to see what was going on. Would such witnesses have been impossible at the outset in Nazareth, even with the Resurrection? Who would the resurrected Jesus have appeared to at that point?
2. This matter of having disciples first might even go to a deeper theological point: that the gospel requires the insight of experiencing the grace of God as love which even extends to enemies. In this sense, disciples are those who think they are friends but come to realize that they have behaved as enemies and are in need of the same grace. The importance of the disciples at the Resurrection is as those who had seen themselves as friends but had to recognize that they had acted as enemies. They deserted, denied, and even betrayed Jesus. They had acted no better than Jesus' enemies. The Risen Jesus came to them as friends who would be able to recognize their status as enemies and thus receive forgiveness. The Resurrection after a successful lynching there at Nazareth might not have spawned Christian faith, because there was not yet these folks who thought they were friends and then came to realize they were enemies.
Jesus' comments to his hometown crowd, those concerning Elijah and Elisha, made the scandalous point that God's love is so wide that it even reaches out to enemies. It is apparently the impetus for their trying to lynch him. Could it have become the insight for conversion? For faith to really take root in such a scandalous God, I think it would take something like the disciples of Jesus to be confronted by a Risen Jesus, confronted by the fact that they had acted as enemies and yet were forgiven.
There is, however, at least one example of a person who actively persecuted Christ and yet was converted. This passage falls in the week of the Lesser Festival, the Conversion of St. Paul (Jan. 25), but his story is the quintessential story of the foundation of the Christian faith being rooted in the realization that we are in fact enemies of God. St Paul was the literal enemy of the Christian faith who came to be so completely embraced by it. He put the matter succinctly in Romans 5:10: "For if while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more surely, having been reconciled, will we be saved by his life."
Christian faith truly takes hold of us when we realize the extent of God's love reaching out to enemies when we come to see ourselves as enemies. In short, we know that God loves enemies because God has loved us.
How have we been enemies of God, when we thought we were friends? Most often, we have been enemies by breaking the first commandment, by unknowingly worshiping false gods of our own making. Who and what are these false gods? They are the gods who require us to have enemies, outsiders, scapegoats. The true God is the one whose grace erases our idolatrous distinctions by taking the position through Jesus Christ as one of our enemies. This is what mimetic theory, and its anthropology of the cross, can show us most clearly.
Link to a sermon on these themes entitled "'While We Were Enemies.'"
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