1. Rene Girard, Things Hidden, Book II, Ch. 4, "The Logos of Heraclitus and the Logos of John" (pp. 263-280).
2. Gil Bailie, Violence Unveiled, Ch. 13, "Where Are the Philosophers Now?" Bailie expands a bit on Girard's comparison of Heraclitus and John.
3. Bailie, "The Gospel of John" audio tape series, tape #1. Bailie's commentary on the Johannine Prologue is interspersed with comments on T.S. Eliot poetry and combined with Girardian insights into John 8.
4. James Williams, The Bible, Violence & the Sacred, pp. 204-210.
5. James Alison, Raising Abel, pp. 49-56: his discussion of "Creation in Christ" (excerpt) elaborates on NT passages like John 1:1-3.
6. James Alison, The Joy of Being Wrong. Alison cites this passage at several points in Part 1, ch. 3, "The search for a soteriology." This chapter unfurls "the intelligence of the victim," which is the insight gained by the apostles in the wake of Jesus' Resurrection. Alison says, for example:
What was unique was the way in which, after Jesus' death they began to be able to tell the story of this life and death not from their own viewpoint, as muddled hangers-on, but from the viewpoint of the dead man, of the one who had become the victim. It is not as though they had invented a profound new insight into Judaism to honor the memory of a dead teacher. Rather they were now able to see clearly the inner unity of the interpretation of Judaism which their teacher had been explaining to them as with reference to himself. They were able to see his life through his own eyes: that is, tell the story of the lynch from the viewpoint of the victim's own understanding of what was going on, before the lynch, leading up to, and during it. (p. 80)And:
What the disciples became aware of after the resurrection was that the person whose consciousness is constituted in rivalry and survival by victimization does not possess the intelligence of the victim. The beginning of the perception of the intelligence of the victim is already an alteration in what constitutes human consciousness, permitting us to see things from the viewpoint of the victim, and from the point of gratuitous self-donation. (p. 81)"Gratuitous self-donation" becomes an important theme in Alison's Girardian framing of the Gospel. The place that John's Prologue plays in this is that of placing the self-giving back to the beginning:
John takes the final step of tracing back explicitly the gratuitous self-giving of this man into God. In his Prologue John shows the self-giving as prior to the rejection, and in the Passion narrative he shows God giving a victim into the hands of men that is far more than any of the cultic victims which the figures of the Old Testament sought to offer to God. (pp. 82-83)This chapter in JBW also includes a more expansive discussion of the "Creation in Christ" material cited above in Raising Abel. Alison suggests that "creation ex nihilo" is a product of the Resurrection and expands the discussion into that of the doctrine of the Trinity. For example:
It is already clear that John alludes to creation in his account of the first day of the Resurrection. This becomes even clearer in his prologue, which can be seen, as can the whole of the Johannine re-casting of God, as the consequence of the shift in perception permitted by the intelligence of the victim. The resurrection of Jesus made it possible to see that the same self-giving towards victimization present in the life of Jesus was the perfect image and imitation of the Father, revealing the Father as he really is, fount of all self-giving. The self-giving of Jesus was then the Word, the Logos, the full self-revelation of the Father. Furthermore, the self-giving of Jesus exactly reflects (but does not exhaust) the self-giving of the Father, and this means that the relation of gratuity anterior to all that is, is common to both of them, Father and Son. (p. 99)Finally, Alison has an important interpretation of related text 1 John 1:5 ("This is the message we have heard from him and proclaim to you, that God is light and in him is no darkness at all."):
In the light of the resurrection it gradually becomes possible to see that it was not that God was previously violent, now blessing now cursing (see Deut. 32:39), but had now brought all that ambivalence to an end. Rather, it became possible to see that that was all a human violence, with various degrees of projection onto God. God had been from the beginning, always, immutably, love, and that this love was made manifest in sending his Son into the midst of the violent humans, even into the midst of their persecutory projections of God, so that they might treat him as a human victim, and thus reveal the depth of the love of God, who was prepared to be a human victim simultaneously to show the depth of his love for humanity, and to reveal humanity as having been locked into the realm of the Father of lies. (p. 108)What do you think? What does it mean to say that in God "is no darkness at all"? Does 1 John 1:5 support the Girardian tactic that all violence and death is of the human realm and not of God's? Is all talk of violence and death in connection with God a projection?
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