Reflections and Questions
1. The Third Commandment in its Deuteronomic form. The most interesting difference between the Exodus and Deuteronomy versions of the Decalogue occurs with the elaborations of the Third Commandment. The Exodus version (20:8-11) highlights the priestly account of creation, with God's work of creation on six days and rest on the seventh. The Deuteronomic version focuses on the issue of liberation from slavery. They are to remember their own slavery in Egypt, and God's rescue from it, as they consider how they treat their own slaves and animals. This version fits more aptly, I think, with Jesus' teachings about the Sabbath in today's Gospel Lesson.
2 Corinthians 4:5-12
1. Robert Hamerton-Kelly, Sacred Violence, pp. 177-179. For example: "Paul uses the two peristaseis lists (2 Cor 4:7-12; 6:4-10) in that letter to bracket the discussion of reconciliation, as if to say that reconciliation can take place only through knowledge of the mechanism of the scapegoat." (p. 177)
1. James Alison, "The Man Blind from Birth...," Contagion, vol. 4 (Spring, 1997), pp. 26-46. Alison provides a compelling account of the Johannine view of Jesus' work on the Sabbath. Perhaps in distinction from the Priestly account of creation, in which the rest on the seventh day seems to be emphasized, John seems to emphasize the continuing work of creation, e.g., in John 5:17: "My Father is working up until the present, and I also work." John 9 then begins with a reference to God's continuing work: "He is blind so that the works of God may be manifest in him." Alison beautifully interprets the healing miracle as a continuing work of God's creation, as Jesus takes the mud, ala God in Gen. 2:7, and performs a continuing work of creation; he completes what had been unfinished for the man born blind, allowing him to finally see.
The question is whether or not the Synoptic Jesus expresses a similar
sense of continuing God's creative work in his healing on the Sabbath.
Perhaps this might be posed in terms of emphasizing either of the two versions
of the Third Commandment in Torah. The Deuteronomic version, with its emphasis
on God's liberating work, would seem to coincide better with the Johannine
understanding. Is the same true for Mark? Does Jesus' challenge to the
Sabbath laws in Mark bear some of the flavor of emphasizing the call to
share with God in the continuing work of creation? What should our understanding
of the Sabbath be as Christians? Rest or work, or both? Do we emphasize
the modeling of God's rest, as in the priestly account? Or do we emphasize
the continuing creative work of God to liberate creation from that which
binds it? Or can we somehow do both, emphasizing the day of rest as a day
to center ourselves with the call to God's ongoing work of liberation?
2. Robert Hamerton-Kelly, The Gospel and the Sacred, pp. 78-80, a section entitled "Ritual Controversies." Hamerton-Kelly mentions that the center of this pericope (2:13-3:6) is Jesus' saying about new wine in old wineskins (2:21-22). If we have framed the Sabbath work as a work of liberation (as above), Hamerton-Kelly specifies this as a work of liberation from the Sacred. He writes:
Jesus is "angered and saddened by their hardness of heart" (3:5), a hardness that is precisely the attitude that serves the Sacred at all costs and sacrifices the human individual to the system. The climax of the section introduces the prospect of Jesus' death. He has challenged and exposed the victimage system and now he is to become its victim too. (p. 80)
Reflections and Questions
1. Are there any modern analogues to what Jesus is doing in these Markan stories of challenging the Sabbath laws? These stories early in Mark's account of Jesus' ministry even bring to issue our basic view of that ministry. Reinhold Neibuhr, for example, found it necessary to paint the picture of Jesus' as a political quietist, so that we wouldn't have to model ourselves after Jesus in our own political activities. According to this view, Jesus came as a spiritual leader only, leaving the door open for us in choosing our own politics. But in these Markan stories of Jesus challenging the Sabbath laws, aren't we seeing a very political Jesus? Isn't he making a direct challenge to the political control that the Jewish leaders claimed for themselves over the Sabbath? Isn't this why the passage ends with the resolve already expressed by those leaders that they will need to destroy Jesus? If we accept Hamerton-Kelly's take on this passage, then modern analogues would involve modern challenges to the GMSM. My choice these days is to challenge the current predominance of capitalism as the framework of control in our lives that most closely parallels that of the Jewish Sabbath in Jesus' time. How do our current weekly lifestyles under the pressures of capitalism need liberation? I've heard of folks, for example, who observe the Sabbath these days by not going out shopping on Sundays.
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