1. Walter Wangerin, Jr., The Manger Is Empty, pp. 116-132. Wangerin has a wonderful story, called "Matthew, Seven, Eight, and Nine" about how he tried to stop his son Matthew from stealing comic books. He tried various uses of the law over several years and continued to fail. Finally, he resorted to something he rarely used: a spanking. He did it deliberately, almost ritualistically, and he was so upset when he finished that he left the room and wept. After pulling himself back together, he went in to Matthew and hugged him. A number of years later, Matthew and his mother were doing some general reminiscing, and Matthew happened to bring up the time when he kept stealing comic books. "And you know why I finally stopped?" he asked. "Sure," she said, "Because Dad finally spanked you." "No!" replied Matthew, "No, because Dad cried." Wangerin concludes with these words:
Hereafter, let every accuser of my son reckon with the mercy of God, and fall into a heap, and fail. For love accomplished what the law could not, and tears more powerful than Sinai. Even the Prince of Accusers shall bring no charge against my son that the Final Judge shall not dismiss. Satan, you are defeated! My God has loved my Matthew.As St. Paul came to realize (cf. Romans. 13), the only law that can be written on our hearts is the law of God's love. Link to a sermon that uses this story and theme, "The Law Written Upon Our Hearts."
2. James G. Williams, The Bible, Violence, and the Sacred, pp. 154-156. Williams takes this passage as the climactic moment of Jeremiah's prophecy, a theonomous moment. All mimetic rivalry would cease at the moment that God's law is written on everyone's heart. Williams gives an excellent summary analysis of the Law:
The Torah of the Sinai covenant was unique, an attempt to abrogate the mythology of god-victims who are placated and summoned in the sacrificial cult to restore the community. A system of law involves a qualitative leap from the primitive stage of the sacrificial cult, which maintains a certain control over individual violence by channeling the all-against-one of collective violence into a ritual that normally allows social relations to continue and cohere. However, even though law is a system of rationalization that weakens and distantiates the sacrificial mechanism, it does not eliminate it entirely. Law presupposes the boundaries of responsibility that both distinguish individuals and groups from one another and connect them in a social bond. It deals with degrees of guilt and presupposes that an individual may be guilty, but that a given part of the community may be partially if not totally responsible for transgressions. It offers a structure that seeks to prevent one family, clan, or tribe from engaging in a blood feud, from taking vengeance against another kinship grouping. No longer is the principle of the offering of the innocent victim at work, because the actual guilty party is to bear the force of retribution. However, law presupposes that an external authority must hold desire in check; that is, it assumes that all members of the community will desire what the authoritative or sanctioning other -- the god, the leader -- desires as this desire is mediated through the social structure, through the hierarchy of surrogates for the primary person or reality. Although it controls individual and arbitrary violence, it rests on the principle that retribution is right and vengeance must be exacted. It is very difficult for a legal system to recognize in principle that its total social order may be involved in a crime or in the circumstances that lead to a crime. Law cannot, finally, recognize mutual guilt, the only solution to which is mutual forgiveness -- the willingness of those in the community to forgive one another. Although law is a rational step away from sacrifice, it is still dependent on the sacrificial mechanism. Mimetic desire and rivalry are presupposed as the very basis of law, even though the sacrificial cult loses, in principle, its primitive power.
Thus it is easy to explain why sacrifice continues to coexist with law even in those spiritual traditions that develop advanced forms of law, as in Israel and Greece. However, in the vision of the new covenant this problem with the law would be overcome, because it is a "law" no longer given through the mediation of the prophet Moses within the context of a sacrificial cult that perpetuated many archaic elements of religion and culture. It would, rather, be immediate, written on the heart. (pp. 155-156)Reflections and Questions
1. The drama of the law written on our hearts sometimes causes us to miss the last line: "for I will forgive their iniquity, and remember their sin no more." The shape of God's love and mercy that can write the law upon our hearts is forgiveness.
Reflections and Questions
1. What does it mean to 'learn obedience through what he suffered'? My guess is that we would have to talk about the way in which the gospels, especially Luke, speak of Christ's suffering and death as a necessity. But I'm still not sure how Christ learned obedience in that way. Rather, it seems to me that Christ suffered because he was obedient. Christ entered this world of mimetic rivalry as one who was not caught up in it. His obedience to the Father consisted in doing his will without falling into rivalry. The world cannot abide such obedience, and that is why he suffered.
1. Gil Bailie, Violence Unveiled, p. 226 (and the surrounding context). This entire section on "The Spirit" provides a wonderful lead-in to rapidly-approaching Holy Week:
In John's Gospel, the crucifixion and the resurrection are the same thing. The Johannine Jesus had repeatedly said that when he was "lifted up" -- meaning hung on the Cross -- he would begin to draw all of humanity to himself. Whether some form of this claim goes back to the historical Jesus is, of course, uncertain, but even if the claim originates with the evangelist in the late first century, it is a bold, almost brazen claim. The striking and irrefutable fact is that history has borne it out. That is all the more reason to marvel at the prescience of the Fourth Gospel. Explicitly and with a calm assurance that in the hindsight of two thousand years is astonishing, the Gospel of John predicts that the crucifixion will have the most sweeping effects on human history.2. Gil Bailie, "The Gospel of John," audio lectures, tape #9.
The last words of the Johannine Jesus, spoken from the Cross, are: "It is accomplished." The verb used here, telein, means to bring to completion, but the deeper issue is not the predicate but the subject of the sentence. What is accomplished? What is brought to fulfillment? What is brought to an end?
In John's Gospel, Jesus pronounces the prologue to his own passion with these words:Now sentence is being passed on this world;The crucifixion both "accomplishes" the decisive demystification of the demonic powers and inaugurates the historical epoch in which these powers -- and the social and psychological structures based upon them -- will undergo a progressive delegitimization, as the Crucified One gradually draws all of humanity to himself. As Rudolf Schnackenburg put it, "The ruler of the world encounters the final rejection, loses his sphere of influence, becomes powerless -- over those who look up in faith to the crucified Jesus and let themselves be 'drawn' to him" (The Gospel according to St. John, 2:392.)
now the prince of this world is to be overthrown.
And when I am lifted up from the earth,
I shall draw all men to myself. (John 12:31-32)
According to the fourth evangelist, the spiritual and anthropological revolution set in motion by the crucifixion is a glacial process the driving force of which is the "Spirit of Truth" -- the Paraclete. It was to be the task of this Spirit of Truth to gradually "accomplish" historically what was "accomplished" in the hearts of Jesus' disciples at the crucifixion and in the days that followed it. As I have said, the Greek word Parakletos means a "counselor" or "advocate." More precisely, it means one who defends the "accused one." The Paraclete is the planetary spirit who deconstructs the myths and mystifications spewed forth by Satan, the perennial "Accuser." Jesus, speaking of the Paraclete, said:. . . unless I go,The world would continue to hold itself together and make itself coherent by channeling its violence toward expendable victims. Cultures and subcultures in the grip of the "father of lies" [Jn 8:44] would continue to drown out the victim's voice with myths and incantations and slogans. But from the moment of the crucifixion onward, the Paraclete would be at work in the world, slowly giving the victim's voice the ability, in the haunting words of Whittaker Chambers, to sweep away the logic of the mind, the logic of history, the logic of politics, and whatever contemporary myths might lend violence a momentary aura of righteousness. However formidable the structures of the sacrificial system might be, however beguilingly and discretely these structures might resort to their scapegoating mechanisms, relentlessly the Paraclete would "show the world how wrong it was," gradually leading humanity to "the complete truth" (John 16:8, 13).
the Advocate will not come to you;
but if I do go,
I will send him to you.
And when he comes,
he will show the world how wrong it was,
about who was in the right,
and about judgment. (John 16:7-8)
Had not the crucifixion loosened the grip that the primitive sacred had on the human imagination, we would probably find Caiaphas's view on the matter far more intelligible than Paul's. Without the crucifixion we would still be living in one of the cultural subdivisions thoroughly under the spell of what the Fourth Gospel calls the father of lies and the murderer from the beginning. No doubt some amelioration of sacred violence would have occurred, but without something structurally equivalent to the Gospels, something with an anthropological and historical purview comparable to that which the Gospels have achieved, all critiques of the structures of sacred violence would be taking place from within these structures.
Once you show the world the picture of this planet taken from the moon, try as you may to resuscitate them, there are certain parochial myths that simply cannot be revived and sustained. The effect of the crucifixion is precisely the same, only with vastly greater anthropological significance. The gospel can neither be annihilated nor can its historical momentum be arrested because the process of arresting or annihilating it would be structurally identical to the crucifixion itself and would therefore have the effect of supplying the revelation with yet another proof of its historical pertinence. The Johannine Jesus said that once he was raised up on the Cross he would draw all humanity to himself, that gradually the sight of this innocent man on the gallows would become more compelling than all of conventional culture's techniques for making sanctioned violence morally respectable. By the time the biblical scholars finally succeed in disproving the "authenticity" of this saying and demonstrating beyond all scholarly doubt that it was never spoken by the historical Jesus, it will have been fulfilled in ways that the average ten-year-old will be able to recognize.
3. James Alison, Raising
Abel, p. 143 (and surrounding section on John's
gospel, pp. 138-144).
4. Robert Hamerton-Kelly, sermon
from April 2, 2006, and sermon
from April 12, 2009 (Society of St. John at St. Mark's Chapel,
5. Tom Truby, a member
of Theology &
Peace, used Girardian insights to offer a sermon in 2012, titled "Lifted Up"; and in 2015, "Time to Be
Reflections and Questions
1. As Alison puts it:
What [the Son] does in obeying his Father is to reveal the murderous lie of the world, and it is as victim of that murderous lie that he becomes the Judge. That is, Jesus did not come to judge, but, in as far as people reject him, he, as the victim who reveals the dominion of death, and is the criterion by which its mechanism is understood, comes to be its judge.Christ turns the human/satanic mechanism of judgment upon itself in the process of being judged in human courts, duly executed, and then declared innocent by God in the Resurrection. He judges not via an active judgment, ala humankind, but by taking judgment upon himself and exposing it for what it is, sacred violence. This same notion of self-judgment can be seen in John 9; see Lent 4A for more on John 9.)
2. In 2006 the Greater Milwaukee Synod of the ELCA is encouraging a Lenten Journey of 'Walking with the Poor.' One of the "Story Share" reflections for this week is entitled "The Poor? What Poor?" by Walt Chossek. With Matthew 25:31-46 in the background, Chossek writes:
I donít see any poor people in the community where I live. My education and hard work have allowed me to live where I want with neighbors who have similar life styles and values.This might also be connected with this Sundays Gospel: "They came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida in Galilee, and said to him, 'Sir, we wish to see Jesus'" (John 12:21). In John's Gospel to truly see Jesus we must see the Son of Man lifted up on the cross. The way to see Jesus is a way through suffering to glory. It is a way in which the world is ordinarily blind. Those who think they see are blind, and those who are blind are healed to see (John 9:39).
I donít see any poor people on my way to work. It is really nice to drive along the Lake, enjoy the view and avoid the congested neighborhoods and the freeway.
I work on the eastside of downtown and I donít see many poor people there. There was a panhandler the other day. Someone called building security and now we donít see him anymore. It is great to work where I feel secure.
Jesus promised to save me if I turn to him. He has blessed me with many things. I work hard to sing his praises and I will share his story with the people I meet each day of my life Ö
Ö as I stand to the left of my Lord, I have to cry out and ask: ďJesus, you promised me salvation, how did I not serve you?Ē
Jesus turns to his right and shows me the poor I did not have to see.
3. On the above theme of seeing Jesus through the poor, I might also use a favorite song by Brian Sirchio titled "I See You." It tells the story of meeting a young girl in Haiti begging for food, ending:
And how often I have quoted that familiar cold statistic
32,000 children starve to death each day
A few more years, some high-heel shoes and lip stick
And little girls will do what they must do just to still those hunger pains
One more day
I could see the traffic up ahead was moving
But she and I kept looking eye to eye
And when the moment finally came to take my foot off of the brake
She shrugged her shoulders, and then she cracked this little smile
And as I drove away I made a promise
Little girl, I never will forget your face
And I'll do what's mine to do to change the world for kids like you
And when I hear 32,000, I'll remember you and say...
I see you. I see you.
Hey little girl, I won't pretend that you're not there
I see you. I see you.
Little girl Christ, I see you.
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