1. René Girard, I See Satan Fall Like Lightning, chapter 1, "Scandal Must Come" (excerpt). This is the definitive Girardian resource on the Ten Commandments. Girard begins his book -- his explanation of mimetic desire, the foundation of mimetic theory -- by wrapping it around an explication of the Decalogue.
2. Gil Bailie, Violence Unveiled, "Moses and the Commandments," pp. 143-145. One of his insights into this core drama of the Bible is that "there is an internal tension within the story, a tension between Israel's determined effort to emancipate itself from the stifling world of the primitive sacred and its inability to sustain its own cultural cohesion without some vestiges of the sacral system." The commandments would move God's people more decidedly in a new direction, but the story of these commandments is interwoven with the drama of the golden calf and Moses' ensuing capitulation to the sacrificial system. Of the commandments themselves Bailie makes the following insightful comments:
When Moses and the former Egyptian slaves reached Sinai, they had only the most rudimentary sense of common purpose. With nothing but a reinterpreted harvest festival for a ritual and with little more than campfire stories for a common heritage, Moses first tried to give social coherence to the refugees whose leader he had become by fashioning a code of ethical behavior, the ten commandments. These commandments, listed in Exodus 20, are lofty, original, and morally demanding. They are strikingly lacking in ritual prescriptions. In terms of mimetic desire, this set of commands is remarkably sophisticated. So sophisticated is it, in fact, that in its final injunction it forbids not only rivalrous and violent behavior but the covetousness that gives rise to the rivalry and violence. The last commandment is this:3. Bailie himself makes this reference in a footnote: "For a discussion of the individual commandments and for a much more thorough examination of many of the related issues, see James G. Williams, The Bible, Violence, and the Sacred." There's two excellent chapters on Moses, the commandments, covenant, and sacrifice.You shall not covet your neighbor's house. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife, or his servant, man or woman, or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is his. (Exod. 20:17)H. L. Ellison wrote of this injunction against covetousness that "it is not wanting more that is condemned, but wanting it at the expense of others" (Exodus, The Daily Study Bible Series, Westminster Press, 115). In a perceptive comment about covetousness, C. K. Barrett shows that while the last commandment explicitly prohibits only the forms of mimetic desire most likely to lead to violence, it is easy enough to recognize beneath these specified transgressions the larger and looming problem of mimetic desire itself. Barrett says:It is of course wrong to desire one's neighbor's wife; but behind this guilty desire, shown to be guilty by its object, lies a desire which is guilty in itself, independently of its object, and sinful though quite possibly respectable. ( A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, Harper & Row, 141)Rabbinical interpretations of the Hebrew Scriptures frequently give special attention to the first and last items in a sequence of texts or a list of proscriptions. When this interpretive procedure is applied to the ten commandments, the two commandments highlighted are the injunction to have only God as a god -- "I am Yahweh your God . . . you shall have no other gods" -- and to forswear conflictual or rivalistic mimesis -- "Thou shalt not covet." For the most part, the intervening commandments address the social and religious repercussions of failing to obey the first and last commandments. Were the commandments insisting on true transcendence and condemning mimetic rivalry to be universally obeyed, the social order would be relieved of those aggravated passions that lead to social deterioration, to a demand for victims, and, eventually, to sacrificial religion. The New Testament summation of the commandments -- to love God and to love one's neighbor as oneself -- expands, in effect, the first and last commandment in Exodus 20 in such a way that the intervening commandments are subsumed in them. We are mimetic creatures, of course, and so eliminating mimesis is impossible. Without it, humanity would not exist. But the humanity that does exist has soaked the earth with blood, and the prohibition against the most destructive forms of mimetic desire is a worthy attempt to reduce the violence. But we haven't a prayer of eliminating the worst of the mimetic passions unless we find a truly transcendent focus for our deepest imitative urges, our deepest "desires." I suppose one could say: without prayer, we haven't a prayer. That's why the first commandment must be taken into consideration in trying to come to grips with the last one. It is also why it is the first one. It is an insistence that we "desire" and have as our ultimate model the One in whose image and likeness we are made, to use the biblical idiom for expressing something almost too profound for expression. (pp. 144-145)
Reflections and Questions
1. It might be said that, from the perspective of mimetic theory, the first and last commandments amount to the same thing. When we take our neighbor as the model for our desire, prohibited specifically by the tenth commandment, we are effectively taking our neighbor as an idol. We should be taking God's loving desire for the whole creation as the model for our desire, but instead we idolize the desires of our neighbors.
2. Yet the first commandment also entails more. Idolatry is much more than idolizing our neighbors' desires. The cultural analysis of mimetic theory helps us to also understand that every culture is founded on idols who command us to undertake righteous, sacred violence against god's enemies. Even in this secular age, when we no longer call our idols God, we continue to have stand-in idols in the former place of our gods. We are called to defend such sacred things like the Constitution and Freedom. We are still called to make the sacrifice -- just the right dosage of righteous violence in order to win the peace. And we still worship our sacrificial victims, namely, the soldiers who make the sacrifice. I prefer to see those fallen soldiers simply as victims of our sacrificial machinery. Rather than worshiping them, they are hopefully among the white-robed martyrs who have come through the ordeal and worship around the throne of the Lamb day and night (Rev. 7:9-17).
1 Corinthians 1:18-25
1. Gil Bailie, Violence Unveiled, ch. 13, whose title is a quote from 1 Cor 1: "Where are the philosophers now?" Here's the first two paragraphs:
The New Testament was written by people who were reeling from the revelation of the Cross and trying at the same time to find the words and concepts with which to express its spiritual and historical significance. They made claims that remain baffling until the gospel begins to produce the mental clarity it takes to recognize the nature of the claims and to appreciate the extent to which history is validating them. One such claim is the one made by Paul in his first letter to the Christians at Corinth, where he says that in light of the Christian revelation philosophy has become irrelevant:2. Andrew McKenna, Violence and Difference. This entire book brilliantly takes up Derrida's deconstruction of philosophy as corroboration of St. Paul's point. Derrida's deconstruction basically shows what one can see even more clearly with the Gospel, and Girard's elaboration of an evangelical anthropology: namely, that violence still underlies philosophy. In short, philosophy ends up, when deconstructed, to be little more than a highly sophisticated language game to cover up human violence.As scripture says: "I shall destroy the wisdom of the wise and bring to nothing all the learning of the learned. Where are the philosophers now? Where are the scribes?" Where are any of our thinkers today? Do you see how God has shown up the foolishness of human wisdom? (1 Cor. 1:19-20)On the rare occasions when the New Testament deigns even to mention philosophy, it treats it as a garrulous Greek exercise that must not be allowed to distract the serious-minded from discovering the truth-telling power of the gospel. In the letter to the Colossians we find this: "Make sure that no one traps you and deprives you of your freedom by some secondhand, empty, rational philosophy based on the principles of this world instead of on Christ" (Col. 2:8). Paul stressed that the gospel could not be expressed philosophically and that efforts to do so would have the effect of emptying the Cross of its revelatory power (1 Cor. 1:17). (pp. 234-235)
1. Mark R. Bredin, Bredin makes use of Mimetic Theory in writing an exegesis of this passage, "John's account of Jesus' demonstration in the temple: violent or nonviolent?" (from Biblical Theology Bulletin, Summer 2003).
2. Gil Bailie, his audio tape lecture series on "The Gospel of John," tape #2. He has a wonderful, lengthy elaboration on this passage. Here's the conclusion:
This is where the gospels are so much more serious than we realize. Jesus didn't come and say, 'The temple is finished. Thank you and goodbye.' He said, 'The temple is finished, and I will take its place.' And we have to ask ourselves: how can that be so? That's an outrageous claim. Jesus says, 'You have used the sacrificial system up to this moment to stay sane and civil. I'm now going to take it away from you. You're now going to have trouble staying sane and civil. I'm going to give you another way, and that is to fall in love with me, to follow me.' Not out of some piety, or 'wouldn't it be nice, or 'isn't he a lovely guy,' or even 'he's God's incarnation.' No, it's the alternative to the anthropology that we humans have lived with since the beginning of culture.Link to my full notes / transcription of Bailie's lecture on John 2.
Reflections and Questions
1. Link to a sermon on these lessons, "What the World Needs More of."
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