Reflections and Questions
1. The healing of a lame man is the occasion of another sermon from Peter that beautifully sums up the Gospel. Here are some brief amplifications from the perspective of cross-centered anthropology:
1 John 3:1-7
1. James Alison, Raising Abel, pp. 90 and 173. The first reference comes in the context of what Alison calls "inappropriate vocations." Our usual way of doing things in this highly charged mimetic atmosphere of today is to choose the handsome hunks, people like the rich young man who came to Jesus. But that's not who Jesus chooses. Jesus seems to choose the opposite, those the world discounts, whose identity is held in heaven as an eschatological reality, as something yet to be revealed when Christ is fully revealed. After quoting 1 John 3:2-3, Alison comments:
This seems to mean something like this: our true identity is still to come, and we will only know it when the story which Jesus inaugurated is unveiled in all its fullness, when we will see what has been our real participation, our real creation in flexible imitation of his own. Once more it is seen that the coming into existence of the kingdom incorporates a whole lot of people of no importance, of no apparent worth, and even these people are knocked out of joint, called in highly inappropriate ways, so as to come to be something which they are not, something which is a being stretched out of themselves beyond their limits, or, as St Paul says...[quotes 1 Cor. 1:27-28]. (p. 90)The second reference to this passage in Raising Abel I will quote at length, especially since it leads up to a quote from René Girard's Resurrection from the Underground. It's context is in speaking about hope (the chapter I recommended Easter week that begins and ends with Mark 16:8):
Hope means that none of us have access to what our story is, we cannot wield it, grasp it, make a presentation of it. Rather it means that, in the face of death, whether in its physical form, or in the form of its violent and expulsive dominion, we hope that we will receive an 'I' in whose formation we have begun to participate, once we have become un-hooked from our old story. We always receive ourselves from what is other than us, whether that other be violent, or loving; but, as we begin to receive ourselves from the loving Other, in the form of our empowerment to construct a counter-story in the face of death, it genuinely is ourselves that we receive, and the story really will be ours. I think that this is exactly what John is saying, far more beautifully and succinctly, when he says:2. Tom Truby, a member of Theology & Peace, used Girardian insights to offer a sermon in 2015, titled "Earth Day Meditation."Beloved, we are already children of God, although it does not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that when Jesus appears and we see him as he is, we will be like him. Whosoever has placed this hope in Jesus is purified, so as to be pure as he is.That is, we are already children of God, with all our scandalized living out, but we do not know our identity, and we cannot grasp it: it is eschatological, and we will receive it in fullness when the whole story inaugurated by Jesus stands revealed. Those who have placed this hope in Jesus, that is, have become unhooked from their identity so as to receive it from the flexible imitation whose fullness will be revealed at the end, all they are being purified, made really different, so that their desire will be transformed into that desire bereft of scandal, that love without rivalry, in which consists the purity of Jesus. We find something similar in the greatest theologian of the nineteenth century, Fyodor Dostoevsky, in his Summa, The Brothers Karamazov, when Father Zosima gives this spiritual exhortation:What seems to you to be evil in you is purified by the mere fact of having noticed it...At the moment when you see with terror that, in spite of your efforts, not only have you not drawn closer to your goal, but you have even drawn further away from it, at that moment, I warn you beforehand, you will reach your goal, and you will see above you the mysterious power of the Lord, who, unbeknownst to you, has guided you with love. [p. 142, Resurrection from the Underground; p. 173 in Raising Abel]
1. James Alison, Raising Abel," ch. 1, pp. 29-33. The visible marks or scars from the crucifixion, prominent in both this Lukan passage and last Sunday's Johannine passage, are also crucial from Alison's point of view. Once again, here is an extended passage:
When Luke and John tell us that the risen Lord appeared with the visible wounds of his death, it wasn't merely a way of identifying him as the same person, but a way of affirming that he was so much the same person, that, in the same way as that person was dead, so was he. But that death is nothing but a vacant form for God, something whose reality has been utterly emptied out, which can only be detected in the form of its traces in the human life story of someone who has overcome death.2. Gil Bailie, the Florilegia Institute tape lecture series on "The Gospel of Luke," tape #12, now available online at his blog site; see Part 193 and Part 194 for this portion of Luke 24. Bailie does a wonderful job of setting up several themes for a reading of Luke 24. One major theme is the cult of death at the heart of every culture, with the empty tomb giving us God's culture as the only one truly founded in life rather than death. The Christian faith is not to begin at a tomb of the sacred, enshrined like the pyramids. But as an example of how anthropologically powerful this tendency is for us, the Crusades were launched as an effort to free the Holy Sepulcher from the hands of infidels -- as if the tomb hadn't been empty! Why wage war to free an empty tomb?! As a contemporary example of the increasing cults of death in our world, Gil shares from a review of the movie based on Ann Rice's novel Interview with a Vampire and from a story about the debut of Ms. Rice's latest novel, where she began dressed in a bridal gown laying in a coffin, processed from a cemetery to a bookstore, and then autographed books for five hours. The two Columbine youths would be more recent examples of how our youth are getting pulled into these cults of death.
The marks, then, of Jesus' death were something like trophies: it was his whole human life, including his death, which was made alive and presented before the disciples as a sign that he had in fact conquered death. This not only meant that he had personally conquered death, which he had manifestly done, but that, in addition, the whole mechanism by which death retains people in its thrall had been shown to be unnecessary. Whatever death is, it is not something which has to structure every human life from within (as in fact it does), but rather it is an empty shell, a bark without a bite. None of us has any reason to fear being dead, something which will unquestionably happen to all of us, since that state cannot separate us effectively from the real source of life. This can scarcely be said with more precision than it is by the author of the epistle to the Hebrews:Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; and deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. (Heb. 2:14-15)Now I insist on this, since it is the central pillar of the Catholic faith. From the presence to the disciples of the risen victim, the crucified one risen as crucified, the lamb triumphant as slaughtered, everything else flows. Without that insight, nothing unfolds, no clear perception of God, of grace, of eternal life, about what we must do, how we must live. This means that eschatology is an attempt to understand ever more fully the relationship between those empty marks of death which Jesus bore and the mysterious splendor of the human bodily life which enabled them to be seen. What type of life is it that is capable not of canceling death out, which would be to stay on the same level as it, but to include it, making a trophy of it, allowing it to be something that can be shown to others so that they be not afraid? It is about this that I wish to speak.
Another major theme which Bailie identifies in the Gospel of Luke
is that of gathering and scattering. The old sacred mechanism for
gathering around a victim is broken by the Cross, and the
resurrection begins a new means for gathering around a Risen
victim. The Culture of God is founded from the perspective of the
victim rather than that of the persecutors. The day's gospel
lesson is an example of a first gathering of this new community.
Pentecost will be Luke's story of the ultimate regathering of
God's children, who have been scattered since the tower of Babel.
3. Robert Hamerton-Kelly, sermon
from May 4, 2003 (Woodside Village Church); sermon
from April 30, 2006 (Society of St. John at St. Mark's Chapel,
4. Tom Truby, a member of Theology & Peace, used Girardian insights to offer a sermon in 2012, titled "He Opened Their Minds and Their Imaginations Caught Fire!"
5. Nancy Eiesland, "Encountering the Disabled God" (online version), the Sept./Oct. 2002 issue of The Other Side. Eiesland sites this passage as a key for her in developing a theology of the "disabled God," an empowering vision for disabled people:
Much of my life I waited for a mighty revelation of God. I did experience an epiphany, but it bore little resemblance to the God I was expecting or the God of my dreams....6. As above with the Acts 3 text, I cite my home webpage, the section titled "The Influence of Mimetic Theory on Hermeneutics and Preaching," where I pair Luke 24 with Peter's sermons in Acts.
My return to intimacy with God began at an Atlanta rehabilitation hospital for persons with spinal cord injuries. A chaplain asked me to lead a Bible study with several residents. One afternoon after a long and frustrating day, I shared with the group my own doubts about God's care for me. I asked them how they would know if God was with them and understood their experience. After a long silence, a young African-American man said, "If God was in a sip-puff, maybe He would understand."
I was overwhelmed by this image: God in a sip-puff wheelchair, the kind used by many quadriplegics that enables them to maneuver the chair by blowing and sucking on a straw-like device. Not an omnipotent, self-sufficient God, but neither a pitiable, suffering servant. This was an image of God as a survivor, as one of those whom society would label "not feasible," "unemployable," with "questionable quality of life."
Several weeks later, I was reading in Luke's Gospel about an appearance of the resurrected Jesus (24:36-39). The focus of this passage is really on his followers, who are alone and depressed. Jesus says to them, "Why are you frightened, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. Touch me and see."
This wasn't exactly God in a sip-puff, but here was the resurrected Christ making good on the promise that God would be with us, embodied, as we are -- disabled and divine. In this passage, I recognized a part of my hidden history as a Christian.
The foundation of Christian theology is the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Yet seldom is the resurrected Christ recognized as a deity whose hands, feet, and side bear the marks of profound physical impairment.
This was my epiphany. The resurrected Christ is a disabled God -- one who understood the experience of the others in my Bible study in the rehab center, as well as my own. Encountering this disabled God became for me the source of a "liberation theology" of disability. Jesus Christ, as a living symbol of the disabled God, shares in the human condition; he experiences in his embodiment all our vulnerability and flaws. In emptying himself of divinity, Jesus enters the arena of human limitation, even helplessness. Jesus' own body is wounded and scarred, disfigured and distorted.
1. In 2012 I shared significantly about our adoption of our two
sons from Africa, for the first time in a sermon. One of our
adopted sons suffered more severely in his time in war-torn
Liberia; his suffering is not easily relieved and has threatened
to overwhelm our family at times. We have had to rely on the
'extended family' of friends, church family, blood family, and
health professionals to help us bear the suffering -- and to seek
healing and new life in the face of it.
Easter season is an important time for me in this faith journey
of international adoption. The resurrection stands as a promise
that new life is possible -- a hope that I cling to when things at
times feel hopeless. We have to keep trusting that healing will
come for our one son whose suffering is not easily relieved. It is
also the time to open ourselves to understanding this mystery of
following a suffering yet risen Messiah. On Easter of this year, I
interpreted Mark's sudden ending as a way of signaling that
mystery. The women stand for all of us in being slow of heart to
understand that the Messiah had to suffer -- and that if we are to
follow him, we must expect a way through suffering, too, until
that wonderful day when all suffering will finally cease.
The lessons today from both Luke's Gospel and his Acts of the
Apostles are more direct about the suffering Messiah. The latter
is the central theme in his Easter afternoon and evening stories.
Jesus must help both the disciples on the way to Emmaus and those
in the closed room that the Messiah had to suffer, for they are,
like all of us, slow of heart to understand. He interprets to them
in all the Hebrew scriptures how it is that the Messiah had to
suffer. For more on the exegetical issues see my comments on the Easter B Gospel.
The theme of the Easter Gospel was extended this third week of
Easter through sharing our experience with adoption, with one
added element: continuing education that I had begun with 3D Ministries about
sizing for missional ministry. Their contention is that the ideal
size for missional ministry is the size of a house church, 20-50
people. It's not that all congregations now need to be house
churches but that larger congregations need to organize into
smaller configurations for mission. Many contemporary churches
have long been on the path of "small group" ministry. But 3D
Ministries argues that these are typically too small for mission
-- as our family found in adoption. We needed 'help from our
friends' in order not to be overwhelmed. The resulting sermon in 2012 uses a 3DM
tagline as its title, "Small
Enough to Care, Big Enough to Dare."
2. Gil Bailie calls attention to the ending, in which the apostles gather joyfully at the Temple in Jerusalem. Much is often made of Luke's more positive use of the Temple in Jerusalem. But we should be careful not to be too positive about it. Luke's Jesus also adds extra lamentations over Jerusalem, including the final one on the way to the Cross to the "Daughters of Jerusalem" (Luke 23:28-31). Bailie puts this in the context of a biblical version of his Florilegia Institute theme of "Keeping Faith and Breaking Ground." God's way is not to completely trash what has come before.
I would build upon this with James Alison's strong theme of God's transforming our sacrificial institutions into self-sacrificial ones that feature a life of service. God is not violent, even to the point of not destroying our institutions in order build new ones. God can take our old ones and transform them into something else. If Jerusalem and its Temple are to be destroyed, that is the consequences of our violence, not God's. The apostles can still gather at the Temple, singing joyfully, because God is in the process of transforming it into something else.
3. The most common choice for the sacrificial victim involves an immediately visual marker. This may be someone of a different race or visibily different ethnic background. Within homogenous communities this has most often been someone with a visible disability, as simple as a limp. Nancy Eiesland's concept of a "disabled God" (above) is a poignant one in the context of mimetic theory.
4. In 2003 it was Confirmation Sunday at our church and a good occasion to reprise a version of the sermon "Do We Have to Go to Church?" (see last week's reflections on the Gospel).
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