1. James G. Williams, The
and the Sacred, has a section on Joseph and his
brothers, pp. 54-60. On this particular passage, he has a good
insight (p. 58) into the importance in Joseph's response to his
brothers of his beginning by denying his deity: "For am I in the
place of God?" In the Girardian reading of sacred religion, the
victim of the scapegoating is both demonized and divinized. Sure
enough, in this story Joseph's brothers end up falling on their
knees to worship -- as his dreams had predicted earlier!
Instead of accepting such divinization -- as he seemed to have
done in his youth, when the dreams foresaw this eventuality -- the
mature Joseph points to God's providence in being able to turn
their evil act into their salvation.
2. Brian McLaren, We Make the Road By Walking, ch. 8, "Rivalry or Reconciliation?"
Reflections and Questions
1. The story of the reconciliation of Joseph and his brothers is one of my favorites. Joseph's words at the end are another one of those gospels-in-a-nutshell: "Do not be afraid! Am I in the place of God? Even though you intended to do harm to me, God intended it for good, in order to preserve a numerous people, as he is doing today. So have no fear; I myself will provide for you and your little ones." When we are tempted to assign everything to God's will, these words from Joseph clearly distinguish between human and divine responsibility. The harm done was a human responsibility, the good that came out of it was God's doing.
2. The Joseph story clearly prefigures the Exodus story. God takes the human evil of being sold into slavery and somehow allows good to come out of it. But the good that comes out of it differs: Joseph's liberation from slavery and subsequent forgiveness of his brothers leads to reconciliation. God's liberation from the Hebrew slavery in Egypt ends in the hardening of Pharaoh's heart and his destruction. There is not the ultimate reconciliation of siblings that had its beginnings in Joseph's high status as an Egyptian. And so the mission of Israel remained unfulfilled until that time when all nations are one under God, a mission which Jesus fulfills by offering himself to the self-condemnation of those whose hearts are hardened (which is all of us, to some extent). See the piece from Schwager under the gospel lesson.
1. Brian McLaren, A New Kind of Christianity: Ten
Questions That Are Transforming the Faith, pp.
143-157. McLaren (whose next book will have a significant
Girardian component) suggests a theme for making a unified reading
of Romans that I think works well -- namely, Jews and Gentiles
being able to live together in Christ, who is "the firstborn
within a large family" (Rom. 8:29). See the citation on this book
in Proper 4A for a
more complete description of the theme and McLaren's Seven Move
outline for Romans. This passage comes within his Seventh Move: Call everyone to unity in the
kingdom of God (Rom. 14:1-16:27), of which he writes:
2. Douglas Campbell, The
Deliverance of God: An Apocalyptic Rereading of
Justification in Paul. Nothing will ever be quite same in
Pauline scholarship after Campbell's dismantling of justification,
showing Paul's language of justification to be a secondary way of
speaking for Paul when in debate with a version of Christianity
that is conditional in its grace. And because we misread Romans
1-4, Protestantism has often lapsed into the conditional grace
that Paul is trying to undo. Paul's primary language of
unconditional grace is a language of deliverance elaborated in Romans 5-8. This is
now the definitive book that must be contended with regarding any
crucial interpretations of Romans. See my "Customer Review" on the
3. N. T. Wright is
another important resource to consult for Romans. See, first of
all, his commentaries: The
New Interpreter's Bible, vol.
10; and his Paul
Part 1 (Romans 1-8) and Part
2 (Romans 9-16). See also The Resurrection of the Son of God,
ch. 5, Resurrection in Paul (Outside the Corinthian
Correspondence)," sec. 7 on Romans; and Justification: God's Plan &
Paul's Vision. We await his 'big book' on Paul in
his Fortress Press series Christian
Origins and the Question of God, which will surely
include his response to Douglas Campbell.
3. Robert Hamerton-Kelly, sermon
from September 15, 2002 (Woodside Village Church).
Reflections and Questions
1. This is a more specific instance of Paul's strategy in the second part of chapter one into chapter two. It can be summarized by Jesus' words: Judge not lest you be judged (Matt. 7:1, which also appear in the comments from Schwager on the gospel).
2. We often read verses 7-9 at funerals. But if we read them in
the context of this passage, so poignantly about judging each
other, I think that the dying and living are more inclusive than
literal, physical life and death. In the Schwager comments below
there is talk of a kind of doubling of hell we make for ourselves
when we take it upon ourselves to judge others. But the end to
which Jesus died and lived again is so that we might be embraced
by his love no matter how much we double our own hells. What
ultimately matters is not what we do, whether living or dying, but
what Christ has done for us.
1. The this is the first of four consecutive major parables in
Matthew that begin with a double designation to introduce the main
2. "Handed him over" in v. 34 is paradidomi is the word used by Jesus throughout the Gospels to describe his betrayal, his being handed over into the hands of those who will kill him. After briefly stepping into the master's debt-free world, the unforgiving servant steps back into the world where debts are kept by holding onto the debt of his fellow servant, and so suffers the consequences.
1. David McCracken, The Scandal of the Gospel; pp. 110-127 provide a close reading of Matthew 17:22-18:35. Matthew 18:21-25 are especially dealt with in the section "The Unforgiving Slave," pp. 123-127.
2. James Alison, Raising Abel, cited on p. 92:
This means something rather important: that there is no story at all of our participation in creation, according to the flexible paradigm of the heavenly story, which is not what is usually called a story of conversion. By a story of conversion I don't mean one of those accounts of how I was bound by this or that vice, had an overpowering experience, and have now managed to leave it all behind me - though such changes are by no means to be belittled when they happen. However, they are incidents, and not stories. Someone can give up doing something held a vice only to turn into a persecutor of those who lack his same moral fibre. That is not a Christian conversion. The authentic convert always writes a story of his or her discovery of mercy, which means that they learn to create mercy, and not despite, for others. This rule of grammar we find set out in the parable of the servant who was let off all he owed by the King his creditor, but who didn't forgive the tiny debt his colleague had with him (Matt. 18:23-34).3. Raymund Schwager, Jesus in the Drama of Salvation; the section entitled "Doubling of Sin and Hell" (excerpt, pp. 63-69) is alone worth the price of this book -- and this book is really worth it! This section is a prime example of one of Schwager's main theses: despite the significant gains of the various biblical criticisms, the loss of meaning that occurs by analyzing passages out of their context has been significant. The most troubling aspect of Matthew is his many conclusions that seem so harsh, the "great weeping and gnashing of teeth," for example. This passage presents us with another: "And in anger his lord handed him over to be tortured until he would pay his entire debt. So my heavenly Father will also do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother or sister from your heart." But the problematic nature of such passages to biblical criticism is due in part to their being taken out of context.
Schwager interprets the gospel texts in the context of a five act drama about salvation in Jesus. His interpretation of such harsh texts comes within the "Second Act: The Rejection of the Kingdom of God and Judgment." In a very real way, this parable of the unforgiving servant mirrors the drama that Schwager outlines for the reader. Act One involves Jesus' mission of announcing the coming of God's Kingdom, a kingdom that reverses the usual order of human kingdoms when it comes to things like debts. God begins by forgiving our debts unconditionally so that we might live in a new world of freedom: "In his basileia message, salvation and penance seem to have exchanged places" (p. 38; see also p. 55). The master in the parable of the unforgiving servant parallels the first act in the Jesus Drama, i.e., announcement of unconditional forgiveness.
But now what happens when people reject the offer of such a new world? In the Second Act of the Jesus Drama, many people, primarily the Jewish leaders who benefitted the most from the existing order, did in fact reject Jesus' offer. Many of Jesus' sayings, then, begin to reflect the consequences of such decisions. Schwager writes:
Whereas the preaching of the prophets contains an alternative ('if you repent, you will find grace; if not, the judgment will be upon you'), the message of Jesus initially disregards the readiness to repent or the hard heartedness of the sinner and consequently at this level excludes the alternative 'of rejection for not repenting.' Preceding, and at first independent of, the actual human decision, it offers to oppressed humankind the pure mercy of God. If, nevertheless, it is a call to decision..., then the pure offer of grace must be clearly distinguished from an arbitrary offer. It does not presuppose conversion, but wants to awaken it, and where the offer of pure grace is rejected a person falls prey to all the consequences of his or her own decision. With Jesus, grace and judgment are not two alternative possibilities within one single appeal; the predominance of grace is shown by the fact that the offer of grace takes place in advance of human choice. The problematic of judgment, on the contrary, emerges from the other side, from the human decision actually made. In the framework of the message of Jesus, the judgment sayings can therefore be taken seriously - without any weakening of the salvation sayings - only if they are related to a second situation of proclamation, which is distinguished from the first by the human rejection of the offer of salvation that is given without prerequisites. The two situations are ... opposed to each other not as offer and refusal of the offer. The transition to the second situation is not made by Jesus, but it results from the reaction of his hearers. Jesus only makes clear the theological consequences of their decision. (pp. 55-56)What are the consequences? Essentially it can mean the doubling of the hell one already lives in, though the one who rejects this message fails to see him or herself as living in a such a hellish world, or the offer to live in a new one wouldn't be rejected. We don't fully realize the hell of living in a world that operates by judgment and by strict repayment of debts. Jesus tries to make this clear to his hearers even at the start in the Sermon on the Mount: "Judge not that you be not judged! For as you judge, so will you be judged, and the measure you give will be the measure you get" (Matt. 7:1-2). Isn't this also the point of the Parable of the Talents? The servants who judge their master to be generous invest his money and are judged by a generous measure. The servant who judges his master to be harsh and buries the money is judged harshly according to his own measure.
Thus, Schwager's summary of the parables of Jesus moves into his interpretation of the parable of the unforgiving servant in Matt. 18. The Parable of the Talents in Matthew ends: "For to all those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance; but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away" (Matthew 25:29). Schwager makes it clear that the story is not about the rich and poor in a monetary sense and continues:
***** Excerpt from Schwager's Jesus in the Drama of Salvation, pp. 65-66 *****
The understanding we have achieved concerning the haves and the have-nots leads us back to Jesus' speech about the parables which is introduced and justified by the saying in question (Matthew 13:12 ["For to those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance; but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away"] and parallels; see also Mark 4:250. The parables therefore set in motion a double process. Whoever sees becomes through them even more seeing; and whoever is blind becomes obdurate through them. The parables attempt to open up a new vision of those everyday things which are in themselves recognizable to everyone, but which not all see. Jesus made his teaching clear from everyday experience also in other connections. He justified the love of one's enemy from an experience which is accessible to everyone, but from which normally no lessons are drawn, or quite different ones: "so that you may be children of your Father in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous" (Matt. 5:45 ). Looking at the sun and the rain could teach people something crucial, as also looking at the birds of the sky, which do not sow, and at the lilies of the field, which do not work (Matt. 6:26, 28). From the experience of how God cares for them, people ought to learn to let go of their own cares and trust the heavenly Father. Similarly with the experience of the sower, the weeds among the wheat, the mustard seed, the leaven, the buried treasure, the pearl of great value, and the fish net thrown out into the sea (Matt. 13:1-53). All these experiences of everyday life can, when they are read correctly, give witness to the kindly Father, his proximate coming and dealings with people. Even if the new community in the kingdom of God contrasts completely with the old laws of the human world, it is however not something unrealistic. It only needs a new look to see signs of it everywhere in our everyday world. If people defend themselves against this new vision of reality, if they remain in their old positions of fear and self-defense, then they necessarily defend themselves also against what Jesus brings. Thus they lock themselves even more into their old world and give themselves up to a process of judgment, which runs according to self-chosen and stubbornly defended norms. Hence the parables lead those who hear them, and yet do not hear, into a process of self-induced hardening of heart (Mark 4:10-12 and parallels).
The connection sketched out between the goodness of God in his dawning kingdom and the harsh words of judgment is confirmed in an impressive manner by the parable of the unforgiving servant. The master in this parable sets at the outset no condition for his servant, to whom he remits a gigantic debt without any return deed, and links with his action only the expectation that the fortunate man in turn treat his fellow servants in accordance with the experience that was granted to him. But this expectation is not fulfilled, and the servant, who had to pay nothing back, clings slavishly in his dealings with his fellow servant to the old norm of payment and repayment, so he is called back and made to explain himself: "Should you not have had mercy on your fellow slave, as I had mercy on you?" (Matthew 18:33). The debt already remitted to him is now counted against him again. The master, who at the beginning of the story was pure goodness, behaves after the servant's refusal precisely according to the norm which the servant - despite his experience of generosity - applied in his treatment of his fellow servant. As the servant had his fellow servant thrown into prison, "till he should pay his debt," so the master gives him over to the torturers "till he should pay all his debt" (Matt. 18:30,34). Jesus concludes the parable with the clear application: "So my heavenly Father will also do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother or sister from your heart" (Matthew 18:35).
The brilliance of Schwager's wholistic, dramatic interpretation of the gospels comes through at this point, because the ending of this parable is not the ending of the Jesus Drama. Yes, there are real consequences to our human decisions to reject God's unconditional offer of salvation. But even the hellish consequences of that rejection do not have the ultimate word, which comes through the death and resurrection of Jesus, Acts Three and Four in the Jesus Drama. Jesus' proclamation of an unconditional divine mercy is lived out on the cross and shown to be a love that even offers itself to enemies, to those who reject him. And so the Heavenly Father's ultimate judgment is manifested in the resurrection. One last quote from Schwager:
Further, we must consider that Jesus, faced with a violent death, gave himself completely for the opponents of God's kingdom, who had closed themselves off. In the resurrection brought about by the Father it is consequently not enough to see merely a verdict for his Son and against those who opposed him. Certainly, this view is correct, as Jesus' opponents are convicted as sinners. But the verdict of the Heavenly Father is above all a decision for the Son who gave himself up to death for his opponents. It is therefore, when considered more deeply, also a verdict in favor of sinners. The opponents of the kingdom of God, closing themselves off, had the way to salvation once more opened for them by the Son, who allowed himself to be drawn into their darkness and distance from God. Although they already had turned their backs, as far as they were concerned, the self-giving of the Son got around this hardening of hearts once more, insofar as he allowed himself to be made the victim of their self-condemnation. (p. 135)4. Tom Truby, a member of Theology & Peace, used Girardian insights to offer a sermon in 2011, titled "Forgiven Seventy-seven Times."
1. The Girardian reading of this parable takes seriously the notion of self-condemnation. Another way to put it is that the unforgiving servant had a choice to live in the world of forgiveness and then turned down the offer when he refused to forgive the debt against him. Link here for a sermon entitled "Choosing to live in the World of Forgiveness."
2. In 2002, these lessons appear the week that we observe the first anniversary of September 11. Is it a cruel joke that we have to contend with the most radical passage on forgiveness the same week that we remember the despicable deeds of destroying the World Trade Center and a portion of the Pentagon? Keeping in mind the First Lesson, are there ways in which God can turn such a horrific act of sacrifice into our salvation? Can we trust in the cross enough to look for ways in which God can turn our evil to good?
3. President Bush is talking a lot about "justiceĒ during this week of remembrance. And I happen to be re-reading Girard's Violence and the Sacred. In the first chapter, he compares and contrasts ancient institutions of ritual sacrifice with modern judicial systems. He says, for example:
If our own system seems more rational, it is because it conforms more strictly to the principle of vengeance. Its insistence on the punishment of the guilty party underlines this fact. Instead of following the example of religion and attempting to forestall acts of revenge, to mitigate or sabotage its effects or to redirect them to secondary objects, our judicial system rationalizes revenge and succeeds in limiting and isolating its effects in accordance with social demands. The system treats the disease without fear of contagion and provides a highly effective technique for the cure and, as a secondary effect, the prevention of violence.From within our own cultures -- Christian, secular, Islamic, etc. -- our own efforts at vengeance seem to be justice while the other's appears as hideous revenge.
This rationalistic approach to vengeance might seem to stem from a peculiarly intimate relationship between the community and the judicial system. In fact, it is the result not of any familiar interchange between the two, but of the recognition of the sovereigns and independence of the judiciary, whose decisions no group, not even the collectivity as a body, can challenge. (At least, that is the principle.) The judicial authority is beholden to no one. It is thus at the disposal of everyone, and it is universally respected. The judicial system never hesitates to confront violence head on, because it possesses a monopoly on the means of revenge. Thanks to this monopoly, the system generally succeeds in stifling the impulse to vengeance rather than spreading or aggravating it, as a similar intervention on the part of the aggrieved party would invariably do.
In the final analysis, then, the judicial system and the institution of sacrifice share the same function, but the judicial system is infinitely more effective. However, it can only exist in conjunction with a firmly established political power. And like all modern technological advances, it is a two-edged sword, which can be used to oppress as well as to liberate. Certainly that is the way it is seen by primitive cultures, whose view on the matter is indubitably more objective than our own. (pp. 22-23)
Girard also talks about an intermediary third option to sacrifice and judicial systems: "the harnessing and hobbling of vengeance by means of compensatory measures, trial by combat, etc., whose curative effects remain precarious" (p. 21). Where does modern warfare fit in here? Isn't it this intermediary option between sacrificial and judicial? There is not a world court to settle matters judicially between two judicial societies. Lacking the effectiveness of the other two options, is this why modern warfare tends to spin so out-of-control?
4. If the U.S. wants to see what its war efforts against terrorism really look like, can we dare to look at the situation in Israel? Are the military responses by Israeli to the suicide bombers leading toward peace, or simply creating more suicide bombers, a situation of vengeance spiraling out of control?
5. Two weeks ago (2002) I promised in the sermon "The Re-Formation of Faith" that I would consider the matter of hell this week. In terms of the two-world approach mentioned above, God is offering the debt-free world of forgiveness as an alternative to our debt-keeping worlds. Does this amount to offering us God's heaven to live in as opposed to our hell? When the Israelis and Americans respond to terrorism with our own reigns of violence, are we choosing hell over heaven?
6. What would it look like to begin to step into the world of forgiveness whilst the debt-keeping hells we live in continue to rage about us? In our current context, I think it might look something like this:
Nurit Elhanan and her husband, Rami, both 52, are campaigning for an end to the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories. What's remarkable about their peace campaign? The Elhanans are affluent Israelis whose daughter Smadar, 14, was killed by a Palestinian suicide bomber.7. I also had a funeral on the morning of September 11, 2002, and used 1 Cor. 15:51-58 as the text, with the theme, to borrow the above title, "Death Shall Have No Dominion." Despite its other-worldly theme of having our earthly bodies transformed into our spiritual bodies, the bottom-line of 1 Cor. 15 is very this-worldly:
"The pain of losing our beautiful daughter is unbearable, but our house is not a house of hate," says Rami, whose father survived Auschwitz and who lost many family members in the Holocaust. In their grief the Elhanans began looking for people like them -- from the other side. They met Izzat Ghazzawi, a Palestinian whose son Ramy, 16, was killed by Israeli troops. Together they founded the Bereaved Family Forum, which now has more than 150 Israeli parents and 120 Palestinian parents who have lost their children as a direct result of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and who are committed to working together for peace. ("Death Shall Have No Dominion," Sojourners, Sept-Oct 2002, p. 12)
The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, my beloved, be steadfast, immovable, always excelling in the work of the Lord, because you know that in the Lord your labor is not in vain. (1 Cor. 15:56-58)In Romans 6:23, Paul uses a monetary image that is more in keeping with this parable of the Unforgiving Servant: "For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord." In other words, the bottom-line of our debt-keeping worlds is death, while the gift of God's debt-releasing world is life. The kind of response made by the Elhanans in the above Sojourners article "Death Shall Have no Dominion" seems completely naive to the perspectives of our debt-keeping worlds, since death has reign there. The typical response to such "pacificism" is, 'You're just going to get yourself killed, and lots of others with you.You've got to protect yourself from such evil.' But isnít this to continue to let death have dominion over you? Does the Elhanans' choice still seem naive if one has begun to live in a world where death no longer has dominion?
8. The Book of Revelation is so often used by Christians to support the traditional view of hell, that in the end God will vanquish all the bad people with a divine violence and send them into eternal punishment. I'm not at all sure about that interpretation. I think there are many clues to being able to read it in keeping with the view here that hell is descending into the violence of the Satanic powers that currently rule humanity. It is the Satanic powers of violence collapsing in on themselves, not a vanquishing divine power of violence.
In any case, I don't believe that is why the Book of Revelation was written. The primary purpose was to give hope to those who still suffer the hells of human violence. The terrorists who flew the planes into the Twin Towers and the Pentagon died in a fiery hell violence of their own making. But they took many innocent people with them! I believe that the book of Revelation was written to give comfort to those innocent folks, and their loved ones, who still suffer the fiery hells of human violence. They are the white robed martyrs of Revelation 7:
Then [the elder] said to me, "These are they who have come out of the great ordeal; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. For this reason they are before the throne of God, and worship him day and night within his temple, and the one who is seated on the throne will shelter them. They will hunger no more, and thirst no more; the sun will not strike them, nor any scorching heat; for the Lamb at the center of the throne will be their shepherd, and he will guide them to springs of the water of life, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes." (Rev. 7:14b-17)It is this hope of God's ultimate victory -- but not a violent one! -- over sin and death which can give us a faith for which death shall no longer have dominion over us.
9. Does the this-worldly interpretation of heaven and hell offered here give a more graceful twist to the notion of purgatory, too? Purgatory can be seen as that in-between place we sometimes live in, wanting to step into the mercy of God's debt-free world, but also holding onto some hurts that are difficult to forgive. Some hurts run so deep that we cannot always find it possible to forgive right away -- perhaps not at all in this life. We live in a gracious purgatory of time allowed for being able to forgive others as we ourselves have been forgiven.
The terrorist bombings give an example of horrifying acts that are difficult to forgive. One needs time to let go of such hurts. Is purgatory that gracious time we need?
10. The other passage which is important for wrongs of such magnitude is the word of Jesus from the cross that asks for forgiveness for those who kill him. Notice he doesn't say, "I forgive you." He asks his Father to forgive them. When we aren't ready to forgive those who are hurting us, can we at least begin by asking God to forgive them? Is that a helpful first step?
11. The 2002 sermon weaving these themes together is entitled "The Parable of the Servant Who Chooses Hell."
12. The parable of the unforgiving servant might not take us to the end of Jesus Drama, but the story of Joseph's reconciliation with his brothers does. We remarked that the Exodus story does not come as fully to the good ending that the Joseph story does. There is not yet the reconciliation between nations, between all the siblings, all the sons and daughters of God. That ending, by the way, is Schwager's final and "Fifth Act: The Holy Spirit and the New Gathering" (pp. 142ff.).
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